Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a of heterogeneous acid catalysts, Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst BD The grant supports Rohm and Haas’s development of a newly commercial polymeric catalyst technology, AMBERLYST™ BD20 specialty. When the FFA contents of oils were and wt%, the activity of Amberlyst 15 gradually decreased with recycling, whereas the activity of Amberlyst BD

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In one embodiment the FFA content of the reaction mixture is consistently below 0. Without limiting the scope of the invention, it is theorized that some esterification catalysts, particularly ion exchange resin catalysts tend to foul or become deactivated due to metal ions, proteins, phospholipids, chemical compounds i. The reaction temperature may be maintained by electric heat, steam, thermal fluid or other amberlysg industrial means practiced by one skilled in the art.

In general about 2.

The reaction can be summarized as follows:. Heterogeneous catalysis often provides good selectivity and, unlike most homogeneous catalysts, are designed to be used for extended periods of time, which avoids the continuous operating expense of unrecoverable homogeneous catalysts.

In one embodiment the reaction is conducted using a 0. In one embodiment, the final reaction mixture 35or 10 is separated into an alcohol and water phase and an oil phase also referred to herein as the dry reaction mixture.

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In one embodiment the pressure is maintained between 0 and psig. A vd20 reaction mixture 3 containing lower quantities of carboxylic acid than the feedstock 1 exits unit and enters a reactor containing heterogeneous catalyst. The final FFA content of the oil phase began at When these materials are used for fatty acid alkyl ester FAAE production by base-catalyzed transesterification of mono- di- and tri-acylglycerides i.


For a variety of feedstocks and experimental conditions increasing product FFA trends have been observed with Amberlyst ion exchange resin catalyst supporting the catalyst deactivation theory. Another method of the invention, with reference to FIG. What is needed in the art are methods that improve upon the respective challenges and disadvantages posed by homogenous and heterogeneous catalyst use for esterification of carboxylic acids.

According to the invention in its most basic form, carboxylic acids are converted into esters by esterification with alcohol and a dual catalyst. In another embodiment, the reaction pressure is maintained between 1 and psig. The reaction is conducted using at least a stoichiometric amount of alcohol as determined on an FFA basis according to Equation 1. Another pretreatment process used to convert FFA into esters is acid catalyzed esterification.

In one embodiment there may be multiple reactors arranged in a way to allow for taking one or more reactor s offline while the heterogeneous catalyst in one or more different reactor s is regenerated. A method for producing esters, comprising: However, there are unresolved concerns about catalyst fouling, durability, stability, activity, and replacement schedule with continuous use of commercial-grade higher FFA feedstocks.

Year of fee payment: In another embodiment, the residence time is between 5 and minutes. Vegetable oils and animal fats and their by-products can contain considerable amounts of free fatty acids.

The total contact time of feedstock and methanol with MSA was approximately 73 minutes. The reactor may have freeboard space above the catalyst bed to allow for catalyst movement and expansion as known to those skilled in the art. In one embodiment, alcohol 2 is introduced to a feedstock containing carboxylic acid 1 and homogenous catalyst.


A continuous process for the preparation of esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids. In another embodiment method is repeated in series with method After a prescribed residence time a second reaction mixture 10 exits the second reactor containing lower quantities of carboxylic acid than the feedstock 1 and first reaction mixture 3.

A method for producing esters comprising: These feedstocks may or may not have been pretreated using means understood by one skilled in the art to remove impurities.

AMBERLYST™ BD20 – KDY Holdings

In a vertical configuration, the reactants may flow upwards or downwards through the reactor Process for production of acrolein and other oxygenated compounds from glycerol in a transported bed reactor. Reaction mixture samples were water washed and centrifuged for 5 minutes in 10 mL centrifuge tubes to remove water and methanol to obtain the oil phase. The reactor contains a predetermined amount of heterogeneous catalyst. The present invention may be practiced by implementing process units in different orders than as specifically set forth herein.

In one embodiment, alcohol and water and other volatiles 11 are removed from the second reaction mixture 10 contained in unit by distillation leaving a dry reaction mixture 12 and a portion of homogenous catalyst. The operating conditions and provisions of the first reactor are as previously described.