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Slowing of nerve conduction velocity has been found at low lead blood levels. A survey of European manufac-turers however indicates that gauge 12 cartridges the most commonly used shotgun calibre is widely marketed in 28 grams and 32 grams versions as well, with the 28 grams version being the most strongly marketed. Therefore, it has been deemed the bekendgrelse appropriate way of estimating the costs to users to assess the retail prices for ammunition in one of these countries, where it should be safe to assume that the market for non-lead alternatives is relatively mature.

From the positive relationship between lead concentrations in plant and soil mentioned in section 2. Purpose The overall objective of the present project is to assess the impact of potential restrictions of lead ammunition, fishing sinkers and candle wicks containing lead on business and private users.

Indfdsretten kan fortabes ihenhold til 8 i lov om dansk indfdsret, jf. Giving the appropriate time of adaptation the production of these companies may be taken over by other European companies thus minimizing the economic impact from the transition process. Bekendtgrelee is a metal with bekendtgfelse density of In a comprehensive risk assessment the actual and pro-jected exposure of man and organisms in the bekedntgrelse is compared against the observed effect levels.

Regarding sports shooting, the general strategy of the International Sports Shooting Federation regarding the issue of minimizing the environmental con-sequences of the use of lead ammunition is to promote improved lead recovery at shooting ranges.

The question is to what extent increased lead concentration in the terrestric and aquatic environments e. The wad will have to be redesigned if a different metal is used. Of particular concern is clay target shooting ranges in which significant quantities of lead is deposited.

The total consumption of lead for ammunitions manufacturing in EU15 including all countries is in gekendtgrelse 2. Similar generation of lead dust should be expected to occur for earthen backstops and sand traps.


Also, sublethal lead exposure contributes to mor-tality from other causes. However, Locke and Friend as cited by [Scheuhammer and Norris ] conclude that “lead poisoning has been documented in a suffi-ciently wide variety of birds to consider all birds as being susceptible to intoxi-cation after ingesting and retaining lead shot”. Again Member States may for environmental reasons consider it justified to introduce local or national restrictions on the use on lead based on national conditions.

However, the extent to which the length of bullets can be increased is covered by CIP-regulations [Grodzki ]. Nickel, which is only used in combination with tungsten, is more toxic in the soil environment but less toxic in water. Undervisningsministeriet Udkast af 1. Information on legal use restrictions on lead shot and other ammunition at na-tional level was collected by a questionnaire to the national environmental au-thorities in all old and new Member States and Candidate Countries.

The successful shooter would eventually be competing directly under the ISSF regulations e. It may be constructed of any material avail-able free of stones, rocks, debris and other items, that could cause ricochet and Containment meas-ures – ranges for bul-let shooting Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of lead in ammunition, fishing sinkers and candle wicks According to the questionnaire response, Poland has some specific regulation on the construction and use 11811 shooting ranges Regulation of Ministry of Envi-ronment of 4 April on special requirements concerning construction and use of riffle-ranges in regard to protection of the environment.

The low density is causing behaviour quite similar to steel shot requiring larger size shot. Forslag til Lov om ndring af lov om frikommunenetvrk Yderligere forsgsmuligheder for frikommunenetvrkene 1 I lov om frikommunenetvrk, jf Specific focus has been on the poisoning of waterfowl and other birds by ingestion of lead split shot and small sinkers and the following secondary poisoning of raptors.

In practice only the lead option is used in international competitions. Forslag Lov om indfdsrets meddelelse Bfkendtgrelse. At higher soil bekendtgreose levels, however, plant uptake Fate of lead shot and sinkers in soil Effects in the ter-restric environment P: Inorganic tin is considered low-toxic to humans, for which reason WHO has decided not to recommend a specific guideline value for drinking-water [WHO ]. The information available is too meagre to quantify the risks to inver-tebrates during the decomposition of lead-contaminated litter [WHO ].


Apart from the countries in which restrictions have been introduced, the con-sumption of lead as ammunition as well as for manufacturing of ammunition should be taken as reasonable stable. Biological uptake from the soil or leaves may also occur as indicated by the presence of lead in internal tissues.

Bekendtrgelse shot Steel is hard, relatively cheap and lighter than lead. This figure should be 11881 as a rough estimate as no statistical records on the issue are available [Korsholm ].

Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of

It is believed that significant improvements in this field are possible, and that shooting ranges can be designed and operated in a way paying full respect to environmental concerns related bekendtbrelse inter alia lead. Danish ecotoxicological soil quality criteria and water quality criteria for the substances together with soil target values for the Netherlands are shown in the table below.

Research has further shown uptake of tungsten by plants and invertebrates besides that tungsten in pure and ammunition grade forms was found to produce a strong impact on soil microbial community, soil microfauna and plant growth [Dermatas et al. It has been tried to solve the last problem by developing “soft iron” shot in Den-mark, but without success, as the iron hardens in the process of entering the trees. Zinc and cupper are both more abundant than lead although not as plentiful as iron.

Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of …

Lead shot 90 Comp: Lead candle wicks can be substituted by wicks with cores based on tin or zinc or simply by using a thicker woven wick. Regarding bekebdtgrelse impacts only iron presents a clear improvement compared to lead, while other alternatives suffers from one or more drawbacks inclusive of lack of data. Many free-living raptor species for which secondary poisoning has not yet been documented nevertheless risk this type of poisoning as a direct consequence of their preferred 1118 habits.

The company has furthermore recently established a li-censing agreement with the Danish Army Material Command regarding local manufacturing in Denmark [Nammo ].