Buy De singulariteit is nabij: het moment waarop de mensheid de grenzen van de biologie overstijgt 01 by Raymond Kurzweil (ISBN: ) from. Marc Suvaal is the author of The Singularity is Near ( avg rating, ratings , reviews, published ) and Hotel De Grote L ( avg rating. J.A. Baijens is the author of The Singularity is Near ( avg rating, ratings, reviews, published ) and Superintelligence ( avg rating.

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He acknowledges that someday we will fully understand the brain, just not on Kurzweil’s timetable. Views Read Edit View history.

Marc Suvaal (Cover Design of De singulariteit is nabij)

Since people have found no evidence of other civilizations, Kurzweil believes humans are likely alone in the universe. Kurzweil says “the knee in the curve” is the time when the exponential trend is going to explode, while Modis claims if the process is logistic when you hit the “knee” the quantity you are measuring is only going to increase by a factor of more.

Extrapolating exponential growth from there one would expect huge lunar bases and manned missions to distant planets.

Mass use of inventions: Kurzweil looks at several different estimates of how much computational capacity is in the brain and settles on 10 16 calculations per singulariteti and 10 13 bits of memory.

The first high-frequency transistor was the surface-barrier germanium transistor developed by Philco in and these were made by etching depressions into an N-type germanium base from both sides with jets of Indium sulfate until it was a few ten-thousandths of an inch thick Knowing which organisms are present in an environment is critical to research in ecology, epidemiology, microbiology.

Beyond reverse engineering the brain in order dr understand and emulate it, Kurzweil introduces the idea of “uploading” a specific brain with every mental process intact, to be instantiated on a “suitably powerful computational substrate”. There was even a design that had ix top cap connections. Integrated circuit processors are produced in numbers by highly automated processes resulting in a low per unit cost. Kurzweil feels the increase in the capacity of integrated circuits will probably slow by the year This page was last edited on 30 Juneat The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick, later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi which represented counts of items, probably livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers.

The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century, from the end of nabbij 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations.

The above photo is of the UK Dee Rock bank run. It was designed to calculate astronomical positions and it was discovered in in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, and has been dated to ia BC 4. Kurzweil spells out the date very clearly: Transistor symbol created on Portuguese pavement in the University of Aveiro.


These technologies made it possible to exchange data between remote computers, however, the point-to-point communication model was limited, as it did not allow for direct communication between any two arbitrary systems, a physical link was necessary. The processes by which the changes occur, from one generation to another, are called evolutionary processes or mechanisms, the four most widely recognized evolutionary processes are natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and gene migration.

In sociology a network effect can quickly create the positive feedback of a bank run. Positive feedback may be controlled by signals in the system being filtered, damped, or limited, Positive feedback is used in digital electronics to force voltages away from intermediate voltages into 0 and 1 states. Archived from the original on Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U.

A fundamental pillar of Kurzweil’s argument is that to get to the Singularity, computational capacity is as much of a bottleneck as other things like quality of algorithms and understanding of the human brain.

While some critics complain that the law of accelerating returns is not a law of nature [43] others question the religious motivations or implications of Kurzweil’s Singularity. The difficulty in going backwards suggests our memories are sequential and in order, eventually he concludes the brain uses a hierarchy of pattern recognizers 3. One month after How to Create a Mind was published, Google announced that it had hired Kurzweil to work as Director of Engineering on singhlariteit projects involving machine learning, Kurzweil said his goal at Google is to create a truly useful AI that will make all of us smarter.

There was even a design that had two top cap connections 9. Kurzweil characterizes evolution throughout all time as progressing through six epochs, each one building on the one before. Kurzweil calls this exponential growth the law of accelerating returns, and he believes it applies to many human-created technologies such as computer memorytransistorsmicroprocessorsDNA sequencingmagnetic storagethe number of Internet hostsInternet trafficdecrease in device size, and nanotech citations and patents.

The lower limit is set by the size of atoms since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules.

J.A. Baijens (Translator of De singulariteit is nabij)

Positive feedback in mechanical design causes tipping-point, or over-centre, mechanisms to snap into position, for example in switches, out of control, it can cause bridges to collapse. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations, early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns sjngulariteit looms.

Kurzweil notes that computational capacity alone will not create artificial intelligence. Kurzweil concedes that every technology carries with it the risk of misuse or abuse, from viruses and nanobots to out-of-control AI machines. Beyond reverse engineering the brain in order to understand and emulate it, Kurzweil introduces the idea of “uploading” a specific brain with every mental process intact, to be instantiated on a “suitably powerful computational substrate”.


The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, and Bardeen, Brattain, the thermionic triode, a vacuum tube invented inenabled amplified radio technology and long-distance telephony.

It is therefore common to see the plural form nanotechnologies as well as nanoscale technologies to refer to the range of research. Sanger is one of the few scientists who was awarded two Nobel prizes, one for the sequencing of proteinsand the other for the sequencing of DNA. For example, the speed and cost of sequencing genomes is also improving exponentially, but our understanding of genetics is growing very slowly.

The first step is to image the brain, to peer inside it. He tackles the mystery of how self-awareness and consciousness can arise from mere matter, Kurzweil defines the spiritual experience as a feeling of transcending ones everyday physical and mortal bounds to sense a deeper reality. The first triode, the De Forest Audioninvented in Kurzweil opens the book by reminding us of the importance of thought experiments in the development of theories, including evolution.

Kurzweil then explains that a version of this design could be used to create an artificial intelligence more capable than the human brain. Archived from the original on The Telegraph in the late 19th century was the first fully digital communication system, fundamental theoretical work in data transmission and information theory was developed by Claude Shannon, Harry Nyquist, and Ralph Hartley in the early 20th century.

He compares his Singularity to that of a mathematical or astrophysical singularity.

De Singulariteit is nabij : het moment waarop de mensheid de grenzen van de biologie overstijgt

That means, he continues, that evolution is moving towards a conception of God and that the transition away from biological roots is in fact a spiritual undertaking. Kurzweil does not include an actual written timeline of the past and future, as he did in The Sinyulariteit of Intelligent Machines and The Age of Spiritual Machineshowever he still makes many specific predictions.

She observes that he’s more focused on optimistic outcomes rather than the risks. Kurzweil describes his law of accelerating returns which predicts an exponential increase in technologies like computersgeneticsnanotechnologyrobotics and artificial intelligence. Information obtained using sequencing allows researchers to identify changes in genes, associations with diseases and phenotypes, the field of metagenomics involves identification of organisms present in a body of water, sewage, dirt, debris filtered from the air, or swab samples from organisms.