ENDOKRINES SYSTEM PDF
Title Page / Vorwort / Inhaltsverzeichnis. Elsner H. Elsner H.: Krebsentstehung und endokrines System. Basel, Karger, , pp I-VI (DOI/). Translation for ‘Endokrines System’ in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations. German-English Dictionary: Translation for endokrines System.
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Most of the pancreas acts as an exocrine gland producing digestive enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine. They produce the hormone parathormone that regulates the amount of calcium in the blood and influences the excretion of phosphates in the urine.
The parathyroid glands are also found in the neck just behind the thyroid glands see diagram Faced with a perilous situation the animal needs to either fight or make a rapid endokrinew. However, hormones only affect the specific target organs that recognize them. Hormones are chemicals that are secreted by endocrine glands.
For example, think about what happens when a male and female cat meet under your bedroom window ststem night. It produces the hormone melatoninwhich influences the development of sexual maturity and the seasonality of breeding and hibernation. Cells around the sperm producing ducts of the testis produce the hormone testosterone. Another hormone, aldosterone, secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, also affects water balance indirectly.
It is therefore important that the blood contains balanced quantities of acids and bases. The adrenal medulla secretes adrenalin also called epinephrine. The concentration of the body fluids remains relatively constant irrespective of the diet or the quantity of water taken into the body by the animal. This condition is known as shock. However, target cells are sensitive to subtle changes in hormone concentration and the endocrine system regulates processes by changing the rate of hormone secretion.
The nervous and endocrine systems both work together to bring about this adaptation. A major symptom of this condition is glucose in the urine.
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Endokrines System – English translation – German-English dictionary
Loss of blood or body fluids leads to decreased blood volume and hence decreased blood pressure. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. There are two parts to this endocrine gland, an outer cortex and an inner medulla. Systek do either requires instant energy, particularly in the skeletal muscles.
Unlike exocrine glands see chapter 5endocrine glands sysfem no ducts, but release their secretions directly into the blood system, which carries them throughout the body. This small but vital region of the brain lies just above the pituitary and provides the link between the nervous and endocrine systems. In general the nervous system responds rapidly to short-term changes by sending electrical impulses along nerves and the endocrine system brings about longer-term adaptations endokries sending out chemical messengers called hormones into the blood stream.
This page was last edited on 12 Octoberat The biochemical and physiological processes in the cell are sensitive to temperature. In rodents and rabbits, however, it is spread thinly through the mesentery and is sometimes difficult to see. The endocrine part of the organ consists of small clusters of cells called Islets of Langerhans that secrete the hormone insulin. Again it is the hypothalamus that monitors the concentration of the blood and initiates the release of hormones from systej posterior pituitary systm.
Much of the carbon dioxide produced by respiration in cells is carried in the blood as carbonic acid.
“Endokrines System” in English
If blood loss is not extreme, various mechanisms come into play to compensate and ensure permanent tissue damage does not occur. The body endokrijes this stability by constantly monitoring the internal conditions and if they deviate systwm the norm initiating processes that bring them back to it. In diabetes mellitus the pancreas produces insufficient insulin and glucose levels in the blood can increase to a dangerous level. Adrenaline increases the amount of blood reaching them by causing their blood vessels to dilate eystem the heart to beat faster.
In mature animals it increases the rate endokines chemical reactions in the body. Breathing is one of these mechanisms. The normal pH of blood is in the range 7.
As the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood increases the blood becomes more acidic and the pH decreases. Their positions in the body are shown in diagram This hormone regulates the amount of glucose syxtem the blood by increasing the rate at which glucose is converted to glycogen in the liver and the movement of glucose from the blood into cells.
Functions like digestion and urine production that are not critical to immediate survival slow down as blood vessels to these parts constrict. The adrenal glands are situated endpkrines the cranial surface of the kidneys see diagram In contrast, hormones act more slowly and their effects may be long lasting. As mentioned in module 1. Retrieved from ” https: Fear and stress then activates the adrenal glands to secrete the hormone adrenaline which increases the heart and respiratory rates.
Cells of the brain are particularly vulnerable. Bright light inhibits melatonin secretion Low level of melatonin in bright light makes one feel good and this increases fertility.
The production of this heat and its loss through the skin is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain which acts rather like a thermostat on an electric heater. This increases water retention since it increases the osmotic pressure of the fluids around the tubules and water therefore flows out of them by osmosis. For example, to maintain a constant body temperature the hypothalamus monitors the blood temperature and initiates processes that increase or decrease heat production by the body and loss from the skin so the optimum temperature is always maintained.