Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is the entropy coding module in the HEVC/H video coding standard. As in its predecessor. High Throughput CABAC Entropy Coding in HEVC. Abstract: Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CAB-AC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced . Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding which is widely used in the next generation standard of video coding.

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It has three distinct properties:.

Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC)

On the lower level, there is the quantization-parameter dependent initialization, which is invoked at the beginning of each slice. The other method specified in H. Each probability model in CABAC can take one out of different states with associated probability values p ranging in the interval [0. It turned out that in contrast to entropy-coding schemes based on variable-length codes VLCsthe CABAC coding approach offers an additional advantage in terms of extensibility such that the support of newly added nevc elements can be achieved in a more simple and fair manner.

However, in comparison to this research work, additional aspects previously largely ignored have been taken into account during the cqbac of CABAC.

Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) – Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute

Note however that the actual transition rules, as tabulated in CABAC and as shown in the graph above, were determined to be only approximately equal to those derived by this exponential aging rule. Interleaved with these significance flags, a sequence of so-called last flags gevc for each significant coefficient level is generated for signaling the position of the last significant level within the scanning path.

The design of binarization schemes in CABAC is based on a few elementary prototypes whose structure enables simple online calculation and which are adapted to some suitable model-probability distributions. Video Coding for Next-generation Multimedia.

This is the purpose of the initialization process for context models in CABAC, which operates on two levels. The context modeling provides estimates of conditional probabilities of the coding symbols.


CABAC is also difficult to parallelize and vectorize, so other forms of parallelism such as spatial region parallelism may be coupled with its use. The arithmetic decoder is described in some detail in the Standard.

This allows the discrimination of statistically different sources with the result of a significantly better adaptation to the individual statistical characteristics. The design of these four prototypes is based on a priori knowledge about the typical characteristics of the source data to be modeled and it reflects the aim to find a good compromise between the conflicting objectives of avoiding unnecessary modeling-cost overhead and exploiting the statistical dependencies to a large extent.

Pre-Coding of Transform-Coefficient Levels Coding of residual data in CABAC involves specifically designed syntax elements that are different from those used in the traditional run-length pre-coding approach. In this caabc, CABAC enables selective context modeling on a sub-symbol level, and hence, provides an efficient instrument for exploiting inter-symbol redundancies at significantly reduced overall modeling or learning costs.

CABAC is based on arithmetic codingwith a few innovations and changes to adapt it to the needs of video encoding standards: Coding-Mode Decision and Context Modeling By decomposing each syntax element yevc into a sequence of bins, further processing of each bin value in CABAC depends on the associated coding-mode decision, which can be either chosen as the regular or the bypass mode.

In the following, we hfvc present some important aspects of probability estimation in CABAC that are not intimately tied cabav the M coder design. Since CABAC guarantees an inherent adaptivity to the actually given conditional probability, there is no need for further structural adjustments besides the choice of a binarization or context model and associated heevc values which, as a first approximation, can be chosen in a canonical way by using the prototypes already specified in the CABAC design.

Update the context models. Binarization The coding strategy of CABAC is based on the finding that a very efficient coding of syntax-element values in a hybrid block-based video coder, like components of motion vector differences or transform-coefficient level values, can be achieved by employing a binarization scheme as a kind of preprocessing unit for the subsequent stages of context modeling and binary arithmetic coding.


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For the latter, a fast branch of the coding engine with a considerably reduced complexity is used while for the former coding mode, encoding of the given bin value depends on the actual state of the associated adaptive probability model that is passed along with the bin value to the M coder – a term that has been chosen for the novel table-based binary arithmetic coding engine in CABAC. Javascript is disabled in your browser.

Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding

Usually the addition of syntax elements also affects the distribution of already available syntax elements which, in general, for a VLC-based entropy-coding approach may require to re-optimize the VLC tables of the given syntax elements rather than just adding a suitable VLC code for the new syntax element s. The design of CABAC has been highly inspired by our prior work on wavelet-based image and video coding. One of 3 models is selected for bin 1, based on previous coded MVD values.

Redesign of VLC tables is, however, a far-reaching structural change, which may not be justified for the addition of a single coding tool, especially if it relates to an optional feature only.

Retrieved from ” https: Support of additional coding tools such as interlaced coding, variable-block size transforms as considered for Version 1 of H. By decomposing each syntax element value into a sequence of bins, further processing of each bin value in CABAC depends on the associated coding-mode decision, which can be either chosen as the regular or the bypass mode.

In general, a binarization scheme defines a unique mapping of syntax element values to sequences of binary decisions, so-called bins, cabav can also be interpreted in terms of a binary code tree.